Using our recently developed multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) MRI method, we are able to acquire high-resolution and high-quality human brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data at submillimeter resolution (left figure), with a voxel size 13 times smaller than that in conventional DTI data (right figure). At this resolution, the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be more accurately measured with DTI.

High-quality diffusion-weighted images (DWI) can be reconstructed from multi-shot echo-planar imaging data using our Augmented MUSE technique, even in the presence intra-scan head tremor. Aliasing artifacts in 2D-FT produced images (row a) and residual motion related artifacts in MUSE data (row b) can be effectively removed with AMUSE (row c), and the resultant signal-to-noise ratio is significantly higher than that in SENSE-produced images (row d).

Using our developed behavior-based connectivity analysis (BBCA), we characterized changes of functional connectivity networks in multiple system atrophy patients as a result of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) based neuromodulation. First, significant improvement of motor symptoms was observed in the active rTMS group, but not in the sham rTMS group; Second, several functional links involving the default mode, cerebellar, and limbic networks exhibited positive changes in functional connectivity in the active rTMS group. Moreover, the positive changes in functional connectivity were associated with improvement in motor symptoms for the active rTMS group.